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This thesis compares the revenues of two alternative land-uses in the area: shifting cultivation and REDD carbon credits payment and also investigates the social impacts of the REDD scheme on the local community. The general conclusion is that the REDD activities have a potential to improve rural livelihoods and the local community welfare, as well as to enhance the mainstream forest conservation. Nevertheless, the main land use in the area is for agriculture for subsistence where the food production can be considered as more worthy than any money income. Furthermore, decrease in the available land can influence either the intensification of the agricultural production resulting in soil exhaustion and accordingly lower yield or the encroachment of the unprotected or even protected forest areas. The local environmental and socioeconomic factors vary considerably over time and across the area. Therefore, future research within next few years is needed to investigate in depth the final outcome of N’hambita project REDD scheme.
The implementation of drip irrigation systems (DIS) as a climate change adaptation measure within N’hambita Community Carbon Project (NCCP) area is viewed as being appropriate. The local communities of the area are divided in their water availability into constant river stream communities and seasonal river stream communities. The environmental potential to implement DIS is different between those two groups, the first group can support implementation of drum kit DIS, while the second is estimated to support DIS with smaller capacity. The social potential is obvious in both communities’ types, but additional improvements are essential. For that reason, it is recommended that a plan for DIS adoption process within the NCCP area is developed following the Adaptive Management Framework, including social learning in higher extent. By successfully implementing DIS, NCCP could encourage the same in further carbon sequestration projects, by raising the difficulties experienced by local farmers in the adoption of DIS.
In Mozambique, unsustainable agricultural practices and the widespread use of fire are progressively degrading the native miombo woodland. Consequently, there is an urgent requirement to promote sustainable cultivation techniques which can be implemented by rural farmers. The biological nitrogen fixing (BNF) ability of leguminous species is fundamental to their inclusion in agroforestry system design. The leguminous, woody shrub, pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) has been recently introduced into smallholder cropping systems within the study area. Analysis of soil results from plots with and without pigeonpea intercropping has indicated that leguminous nitrogen contribution is not sufficient to sustain crop demand. This study therefore identifies additional agricultural practices that facilitate the maintenance of soil nitrogen and carbon. These include the incorporation of vegetative biomass into the soil; weed removal and no burning.
A new impetus for agroforestry has been the realisation that farming systems which include woody perennial species are potentially systems of carbon storage. With appropriate management, agroforestry systems have the capacity to sequester carbon within both perennial biomass and soil organic matter. Agroforestry projects have therefore been recognised as a potential method for reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD). This study quantifies carbon stocks within the upper soil horizons and the woody perennial biomass of cultivated plots.
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